Indicator 63. Personnel in R&D (per million inhabitants)

Rationale and definition:

The fields of science, technology and innovation are key drivers of economic growth and development. Progress in these fields requires trained staff engaged in research and development (R&D). This indicator measures the total number of personnel (researchers, technicians and other support staff) working in research and development, expressed in full-time equivalent, per million inhabitants. This indicator goes beyond technology development, diffusion, and adoption, but is important for achieving many of the SDGs.1


Data can be broken down by sector, sex, qualification, and field of science.2

Comments and limitations:

Data is available for some 140 countries, but not always fully comparable across countries.

Preliminary assessment of current data availability by Friends of the Chair:


Primary data source:

R&D surveys.

Potential lead agency or agencies:

UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS), and the OECD.